History of the International Phonetic Alphabet
نویسنده : لیلافیضی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٩/٢
 

History of the International Phonetic Alphabet

The history of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the International Phonetic Association began in the late 19th century, with the formation of the association and its declaration of creating a phonetic system used for transcribing the sounds of spoken language. The association was formed by French and British language teachers led by Paul Passy, and established in Paris in 1886. The first published alphabet appears in Passy (1888). The association based their alphabet upon the Romic alphabet of Henry Sweet (1880 or 1881–1971), which in turn was based on the Phonotypic Alphabet of Isaac Pitman and Alexander John Ellis (Kelly 1981).

The alphabet has undergone a number of revisions during its history, with the 1932 version used for over half a century, until the IPA Kiel Convention of 1989. Minor adjustments have been made since then, in 1993, 1996, and 2005.

The extIPA for speech disorders was created in 1991 and revised in 1997

 Dhi Fonètik Tîcerz' Asóciécon

The International Phonetic Association was founded in Paris in 1886 under the name Dhi Fonètik Tîcerz' Asóciécon (The Phonetic Teachers' Association), a development of L'Association Phonétique des Professeurs d'Anglais (The English Teachers' Phonetic Association), to create an international phonetic alphabet primarily for English, French, and German. Many of the symbols derived from Sweet's Revised Romic alphabet.

Originally the symbols had different phonetic values from language to language. However, over time it was decided to restrict each symbol to a single pronunciation. In 1887, the first draft of this standardized alphabet was published, as follows:

 

Blab.

Ldent.

Dent.

Alv.

Palv.

Pal.

Velar

Uvular

Glot.

Plosive

p

b

 

 

t

d

 

 

k

g

 

'

 

Nasal

m

 

 

n

 

ɴ

ɴ

 

 

Lateral

 

 

 

l

 

ʎ

 

 

 

Rhotic

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

ʀ

 

Semivowel

w

ɥ

U

 

 

 

j

 

 

 

Fricative

 

f

v

θ

ð

s

z

c

ʒ

ç

 

x

q

 

h

 

                                   

 

 

Front

 

Central

 

Back

Close

i • y

 

 

 

u

Close-mid

e • ɶ

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

ə

 

 

Open-mid

ɛ • œ

 

 

 

ɔ

 

æ

 

 

 

 

Open

a

 

A

Note: this early version of the IPA was presented as a list (with examples from European languages) instead of the now common articulatory chart used today.

 

Diacritics and suprasegmentals

The earliest set of diacritics to the IPA were described as follows

Declaration of purpose

By September 1888, a set of six policy statements had been formulated by the International Phonetic Association which would govern all future development of the alphabet. They were:

  1. Each sign should have its own distinctive sound.
  2. The same sign should be used for the same sound across all languages.
  3. As many ordinary roman letters should be used as possible, and the usage of new letters should be minimal.
  4. International usage should decide the sound of each sign.
  5. The look of the new letters should suggest the sound that they represent.
  6. Diacritics should be avoided when possible, as they are difficult to write and hard to see.

Aside from these six guidelines, the association encouraged phonemic-style transcription and for contributors to transcribe their own style of speaking their own language.

Some of the new symbols were ordinary Roman letters typeset "turned" (= upside-down) (e.g. ʎ ɥ ə ɔ ɹ ᴚ), which was easily done before mechanical typesetting machines came into use

1900 expansion

During the 1890s, the alphabet was expanded to cover sounds of Arabic and other non-European languages which did not easily fit the Latin alphabet. These additions were published together in 1900, along with a few revisions, such as ɲ and ŋ for ɴ, and ʃ for c, which was reassigned. For the first time the glyphs were organized into a chart according to their articulation. Vowels and consonants were placed in a single chart, unlike today, to represent that phones ranged in openness from stops (top) to open vowels (bottom).

 

Laryn-
gales

Gutturales

Uvulaires

Vélaires

Palatales

Linguales

Labiales

C
O
N
S
O
N
N
E
S

Plosives

ʔ

 
 

q ɢ

k ɡ

c ɟ

t d

p b

Nasales

 
 

 

 

ŋ

ɲ

n

m

Latérales

 
 

 

 

ɫ

ʎ

l

 

Roulées

 
 

Q

ᴙ ʀ

 

 

r

 

Fricatives

h

ʜ ɦ

ᴚ ʁ

(ʍ w) x ǥ

(ɥ)  ç j

ɹ, θ; ð, ʃ ʒ, s z

f v       F ʋ
 ʍ w   ɥ

V
O
Y
E
L
L
E
S

Fermées
                      
Mi-fermées

Moyennes

Mi-ouvertes

Ouvertes

 

 

 

u   ɯ    ü       ï    y   i

  ɷ                  ʏ   ɩ
    o   ∀   ö   ë   ø   e
                ə;
      ɔ     ʌ ɔ̈    ä œ   ɛ
                ɐ      æ
          ɑ        a

 

(u ü y)

(o ö ø)

(ɔ ɔ̈ œ)

 1932 revision

A second round of expansion, along with a few reassigned letter values, occurred in 1932. This was a major revision, used with little change for over half a century.

 

 1976 revision

In 1976 several redundant symbols were withdrawn. These were syllabic ƞ (now n̩) and the affricates ƾ (ts) and ƻ (dz); it was decided affricates would be written as stop plus fricative with a tie bar.

 1989 consolidation

A primary purpose of the Kiel Convention of 1989 was to clean up the IPA. Several sounds had long been transcribed with more than one letter, contrary to the founding principles, because agreement could not be reached on which to use. These were the vowels ɷ = ʊ and ɩ = ɪ, palatalization ƫ = tʲ, and labialization k̫ = kʷ. Several symbols that incorporated primary and secondary articulation together and already become obsolete, but ʆ = ʃʲ or ɕ and ʓ = ʒʲ or ʑ were explicitly dropped. Gone too was Czech ɼ, now written with a diacritic as r̝. The click symbols ʇ, ʖ, ʗ, which the association had been unable to persuade Khoisanists and Bantuists to adopt, were replaced with the pipe symbols ǀ, ǁ, ǃ, and the additional click symbols ʘ, ǂ were adopted.

While this brought the IPA officially into line with the literature on clicks, it has meant some alienation on the part of Czechs.

 1993 revision

The 1993 revision introduced three changes:

  • The mid central vowels ɘ, ɵ, and ɞ were added, while ɜ was specified as the open-mid central unrounded vowel rather than simply an "additional" mid central vowel as in 1932
  • The voiceless implosives ƥ, ƭ, ƈ, ƙ, ʠ were dropped

 
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